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Full text of "Emigration from Ireland; being the second report of the committee of "Mr. Tuke's Fund" : together with statements by Mr. Tuke, Mr. Sydney Buxton, Major Gaskell, and Captain Ruttledge-Fair"

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EMIGRATION FROM IRELAND; 



BEING THE 



SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMJTTEE 



"MR. TUKE'S FUND.' 



TOGETHER WITH 



STATEMENTS BY 

MR. TUKE, MR. SYDNEY BUXTON, MAJOR GASKELL, 
AND CAPTAIN RUTTLEDGE-FAIR. 

Jidy, 1S83. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL PRESS AGENCY, LIMITED 
13, WiiiTEFEiAES Street, E.G. 



PRICE. SIXPENCE. 



CONTENTS 



1. lliii'ORT OF Tiiii Committee 
II. Appendix to HEPorvT 

III. Mr. Tuke's Report (No 1.) ... 

„ (No. 2.) ... 

IV. Mb Sydney Buxton'.s Report... 

V. Major Gaskell's Report 
VI. Captain Ruttledoe-Fair's Report 



Summary of Disposal of Holdings in Bel^niullet and Newport 
Districts .. 



PA<i 

3 
G 



11 



17 



25 



27 



MR. TUKE'S FUND/^ 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

President — 
HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BEDFORD, K.G. 



The Right Hon. W. H. Smith, M.P. 

(Chairman). 
Samuel Whitbread, Esq., M.P. 

(Deputy Chairman). 
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart. 



Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P 
H. S. Northcote, Esq., M.P. 
i^RTHUR Pease, Esq., M.P. 
William Rathbone, Esq., M.P. 
The Marquis of Tavistock, M.P 
James H. Tuke, Esq. 



lion. Ti-eamrers— 
J. Gurnet Barclay, Esq. Arnold Morley, Esq., M.P. 

Hon. Secretaries— 
Sydney C. Buxton, Esq., M.P., 15, Eaton Place, S.W. 
HoAVARD Hodgkin, Esq. , 12, Hereford Gardens, W. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. 



Ill concluding their first Eeport, more than a year ago, the 
Executive Committee of the above Fund expressed a hope that the 
Government might see their way to grant a sum of money to assist 
in carrying on the work of Emigration from the congested districts 
in the West of Ireland ; the Committee being " convinced that a vast 
amount cf such work remained to be done, but that the necessary 
outlay would be beyond the means of any private societj^" 

This hope was fortunately realised by the insertion in the 
Arrears Act of 1882, of a clause whereby a grant of £100,000 was 
made to the Irish Executive for Emigration purposes. On the 
passing of that Act, the Committee were requested by the 
Lord Lieutenant to undertake the charge of certain districts 
in the West of Ireland ; and more than a quarter of the whole grant 
was placed at their disposal. 

The accompanying Reports of Messrs. Tuke and Buxton give 
the necessary information respecting the locality, area, and population 
of these districts, which need not therefore, be here repeated; 
they also show what steps were taken at the beginning of the 
present year to obtain information and. details as to the number of 



4 Emigratmi from Ireland, 

families desirous of . emigrating, — subsequently, how tlie selection 
was made, — and more recently what care and trouble were taken to 
ensure success in all branches of the work. 

It will therefore suffice here to summarise the principles of 
action, namely : — 

1. That the Emigration should be *' family " as distinct from 

" individual " emigration. 

2. That no pressure of any sort should be put on the people 

to induce them to emigrate. 

8. That where they could afford it, the emigrants should be 
asked to contribute something towards the cost.* 

4. That those only should be sent to the States who could 

produce recent letters from friends willing and anxious 
to receive them out there. 

5. That the rest — where suitable — should be sent to Canada, 

either to the Government agents, or to the friends with 
whom the Committee were in communication ; and 
who had most kindly undertaken to receive some of 
the emigrants. 

G. That each family should be booked through to their 
destination ; should receive a sum for landing money on 
arrival at the port ; and shoidd be supplied with proper 
clothing and outfit. 

The emigrants were nearly all sent by the steamers of the 
Glasgow " Allan " Line ; those from Oughterard and Clifden were 
embarked at Galway, and the Mayo emigrants at Blacksod Bay, near 
Belmullet, — and were landed at Boston or Quebec. 

It is satisfactory to be able to report that, as far as can yet be 
ascertained, the emigrants sent out under the auspices of the Fund 
have done well both in the States and Canada. Very good accounts 
have been received from many of the American emigrants, especially 
from those sent to tlie Western States ; while the reports from the 
Dominion and Ontario Governments^ as well as from private sources, 
seem to show that the Canadian emigrants were easily placed, are 
generally doing well, and have every chance of prosperity before 
them. 

One thing is certain, that neither in the States nor in Canada, 
have any of the emigrants sent out by the Committee gone to 
swell the ranks of the " pauper invasion " of which so much has 
been lately heard. 

* Owing to the poverty of the people thi«3 was found almost imposaible, 
and only about £320 was received from the Mayo, and about £50 from tlie 
Galway eraigiants. h^a. 

4^ %. 



Mr. Take's Fund. 5 

Several of tlie sliipments were minutely examined, on arrival at 
Boston — with intent adversely to criticise, — but no cause of com- 
plaint of any kind was discovered ; nor, in fact, when it is considered 
that all the emigrants were landed well clothed, with money in 
their pockets and fare paid to a fixed destination, was this 
likely to be the case. 

So much as regards those who have gone ; and it will be seen 
from the annexed Reports — -especially from that of Capt. Ruttledge- 
Fair — that the condition of those who remain has been considerably 
improved by reason of the satisfactory consolidation of holdings 
which has ensued. Returns so far received from the Gralway dis- 
tricts show that there, as in Mayo, it is rare that a holding vacated 
has been filled up by a new Tenant. 

In conclusion the Committee heartily endorse the hope expressed 
in the subjoined Reports, that the work of State-aided Emigration 
will not be allowed to lapse, but will be continued for some years 
longer, in order that the population desirous of leaving these over- 
crowded districts, may be enabled to do so, and the condition of tha 
people who remain be thereby improved. Any further assistance the 
Committee can give in the work of Emigration will be willingly 
rendered. 

The Committee desire to give their best thanks to those, whether 
in Canada or the United States, who have so kindly rendered them 
assistance. They desire also to acknowledge the hearty co-operation 
which they have received both from the Dominion and the Ontario 
Governments,and their agents; and especially to thank, amongst others, 
Mr. Stafford, the agent of the Dominion Government at Quebec, and 
Mr. Spence of the Provincial Government at Toronto, for the great 
care and attention they have bestowed on receiving and placing the 
emigrants. 

The annexed returns of shipments and accounts will explain the 
particulars of Emigration, and will show that over 5,300 emigrants 
have been assisted; at a total cost, as far as yet ascertained, of £34,950, 
of which £26,445 has been received from the Government grant. 

If the Government ask for a further grant for Emigration pur- 
poses, it may be needful to appeal to the Public for renewed support 
to enable them to continue the work. 

SYDNEY C. BUXTON, I 
HOWARD HODGKIN j ^^''- ^''•'• 

Jury, 1883. 



6 



Emigration from Ireland, 



APPENDIX. 



A. -LIST OF SAILINGS. 



DATE, 

Mar. 23 ... 

„ 30 and 31 
Ai.ril 1. ... 

„ 11. ... 

„ 13 and 11 

„ 11). ... 

„ 21. ... 

„ 21 and 22. 

,, 27 and 28, 

„ 28. ... 
May 4 and ;>. 

„ 11 and 12. 

„ 20 and 21. 

„ 2.") and 2(5. 

,, 25. 
June 2 

,, 2 and 3. 

„ 

;; li;.::: ::: 
„ Ki 

„ 22 and 23, 

„ 23 

Aubtriilian 



SHU'. 

.. riiauiician ... 
, ... Nt'.storian 

... Indiana ... , 

... Adriatic 

... Canadian 

... British Prince 

... Austrian ... , 

... Scandinavian 
, ... Phoenician ... 

... Buenos Ayrran 

... Manitoban ... 

... Prussian 

... Canadian 

... Austrian 

... Britannic 

... Phoenician ... 

... Grecian... ... 

... Scandinavian 

... Buenos Ayrean 

... Prussian 

... Manitoban ... 

... Waldensian ... 

... Lake \Vinni])Og- 
and other sundry ca; 



TO. 



.. Cahvay ... 
., Blacksod Bay 
.. (^ueen.stown 
.. ( ^)ueenstown 
.. Blacksod P»ay 
.. Queenstown 
.. Gal way ... 
.. Blacksod Bay 
. . . Jjlacksod Bay 
.. Galway 
.. Blacksod Bay 
.. Blacksod Bay 
.. Blacksod Bay 
... Blacksod Bay 
,.. Queenstown 
... (4ahvay 
. . . Blacksod Bay 
. .. Galway 
.. Blacksod Bay 
.. Galway 
,.. Galway 
... Blacksod Bay 
... Galway ... 



Bo.ston .. 

and Galway ... Boston 

Philadelph 

New York 

Boston .. 

Philadelph 

Boston 

Quebec .. 

Boston . . 

(Juebec . . 

(Quebec . . 

Boston . . 

Quebec .. 

Boston 

New Yorl 

Boston . . 

Quebec . . 

Boston . . 

Quebec .. 

Boston .. 

Quebec . . 

Boston . . 

Cjuebec . . 



and Galway 

and Galway 
and Galway 

and Galway 
and Galway 
and (:;alwny 
and Galway 

and Galway 



and (ialway 



Total ... 



NUMBEU 

OF 

1•:MI{;HANT^ 

. ...214 
. ...,538 
ia ... 05 
... 08 
. ... .521 
la ... 134 
. ... 128 
. ... 401) 
. ... 4.30 
. ... 270 
. ... 305 
. .. .500 
. ... 374 
. ... 350 
: ... 15 
. ... 00 
. ... 202 
. ... 40 
. ... 83 
, ... 40 

73 

. ... 230 

, ... .57 

79 

5327 



B.- SUMMARY 01^ DESTINATIONS ACCORDING TO DISTRICTS. 

DISTRICTS. TOTALS. UNITED CANADA. AUSTRALIA. 

STATES. 

41 



Px'liuullet and Newport 

Clifden 

Oughterard 

Totals 



2514 
158J) 
1224 

5327 



UNITED 

STATES. 

1585 

980 
807 



3432 



888 
009 
357 

1854 



41 



N.B. — By the end of the !^east;n about 50 emigrants will have left in addition to the 

above numbers. 



C.— TuLle slioAviiig the Total Approximate Cost, according to Districts, 
Government Grant received, and consequent Approximate Cost to 
the Committee. 



the 



DISTRICTS. 


NUMBER OF TOTAL 




GOVERNMENT 


COST TO 


AVERAGE COST 


EMIGRANTS. COST. 




GRANT. 


COMMITTEE. 


PER HEAD. 




£ 




£ 


£ 


£ 


Belnudlet and 












Newport ... 


... 2514 ...no, SCO 


., 


. 12,445 .. 


. 3,4.55 . 


.. 10 


Chfden 


.. 1589 ... 10,750 


. 


.. 7,922 0.. 


. 2,828 


... 15 


Galway 


... 1224 ... 7,900 


. 


.. 0,078 . 


1,822 


... 9 



Totals ,5327 34,950 20,445 8,105 11 

N.B, — As several accounts are not yet to hand, the Government Grants are the only 
figures in the above account that can be taken as final. 

* From which must be deducted £320 received from the emigrante, 



D.-RECEIPTS. 

The Committee liave to ncknoAvledge Avitli many thanks slibscriptloiis to 
the amount of £-8443 48. 2d., received since the issue of their last Kepoit, 
together with £3000 128. 7d., the balance of the Dlichess of Marlborough's 
Fund, making a total of £12,049 10s. 9d. 



Mr. TiiMs Fund. 7 

MR. TUKE'S REPORT. 

No. 1. 

March 10, 1883. 

It will be remembered that a proposal was received from the 
Irish Government last November requesting the Committee to under- 
take the charge and oversight of the emigration from certain Unions 
(or parts of Unions) in the AVest of Ireland which were considered 
too poor to raise any portion of the amount required in addition to 
the Government grant of £5 per head. 

These were the Unions of Belmullet and the western half of 
Newport, including Achill, in the county of Mayo, and portions of 
the Unions of Clifden and Oughterard, in Galway. The population 
of these districts amounted to nearly 46,000. 

Early in January of this year a circular was distributed by the 
Committee intimating that the relieving officers in the various districts 
were ready to receive applications from any suitable families who 
might wish to emigrate, such applications to be made not later than 
the 31st of January. It was very quickly ascertained that large 
numbers would avail themselves of the proffered boon, the success of 
those who had been assisted to emigrate last year by the Committee 
no doubt influencing many of the applicants. 
The actual numbers were : — 
Belmullet . . . . 2,420 out of population of 15,700 

Newport West .. ..740 „ „ 8,900 

Clifden (parts of) . . 1,700 „ „ 14,000 

Oughterard (Soutli) . . 1,560 „ „ 7,300 



Total .. 6,420 „ „ 45,900 

Subsequently a much larger number have requested to be 
assisted both in Oughterard and Newport, and from the non- 
scheduled electoral divisions in Clifden, who have not been entered 
on our lists. 

It was at once evident that with so large a number of persons, 
scattered over districts varying from 50 to 150 miles apart, which 
could only be reached by cars, it was absolutely needful for several 
persons to be employed in the work of selection from the lists at the 
same time. Mr. Sydney Buxton most kindly offered to take one 



8 Einig ration Jrom Ireland. 

district, whilst I took another, leaving Major Gaskell on his return 
from America, then daily expected, to take a third. 

As it was found to be of extreme importance to make these 
selections at an early date, in order to avoid any pretext for the 
non-cultivation of tlio holdings, it was decided that a meeting should 
take place at '>Vestport (Co. Mayo) on the 13th of February, to 
confer with Mr. fl. A. Robinson, the Local Government Inspector of 
the districts, and generally to organise the work and to arrange the 
system of selection of families. 

Previously to leaving home wo had the advantage, in the 
absence of the Committee, of conferring on many points with the 
Chairman of the Committee, Mr. AV. II. Smith, and also in passing 
through Dublin we had interviews with the Lord Lieutenant, Mr. 
Hamilton, and Mr. H. Eobinson, the Yice-President of the Local 
Government Board. 

On meeting as arranged at Westport, we had also the benefit of 
Major Gaskell's presence. One of the local agents was present with 
the lists of applicants in his district, showing ages, &c., &c., of the 
families. 

Previous experience and the information furnished from abroad as 
to the vital importance of not sending out large families without a fair 
proportion of breadwinners, made it evident that a large number of the 
applicants on these lists who had several children under twelve or four- 
teen years of age, although eligible in other respects, would at once 
have to be rejected. 

After much consideration it was arranged that Mr. Sydney 
Buxton should undertake the Northern portions of Mayo (Belmullet 
and Newport), assisted by Captain Huttledge-Fair, and that 
Major Gaskell should undertake (by permission of the Local Govern- 
ment Board) the Oughterard Union, whilst I proceeded to Clifden. 
Questions affecting the clothing of the emigrants, transport to sea coast 
and shipment,varying in each locality ,had all to be carefully considered 
and discussed. For the Northern districts arrangements had to be 
made for the shipment of the emigrants by steamers from Blacksod 
Bay with the assistance of a gunboat — the first emigrant steamer 
probably which will have sailed from that splendid roadstead. For 
the Galway districts, arrangements had also to be made for a weekly 
service of boats, alternating between the States and Canada. This 
will chiefly be done by Messrs. Allan and Co., of Glasgow, at 
moderate rates, Leaving Mr. Buxton to give his own report, I may 



M)\ Takes Fund. 9 

briefly say that it required a fortnight's hard work to complete the 
investigation of the Glifden lists, and the personal inspection and 
visitation of the applicants at many points of the Glifden Union, 
which extends over an area the size of Middlesex. 

As regards the emigrants who had applied to be sent to the 
United States, satisfactory letters or information have been supplied 
in each case, showing that their friends will be prepared to receive or 
have promised to obtain work for them. These letters were of very 
recent date, January or February of this year, and usually sent in 
response to inquiries made by those who had friends in America 
immediately after our circular was distributed in January. The 
letters were from many parts of the Northern States, and one or 
two from Kentucky. A great number come from St. Paul, Minnesota, 
especially in the Oarua district, from whence in 1880 a few families 
were selected by Father Nugent. Some of the letters are from sons 
or daughters to their parents, promising them in most affectionate 
terms a home and all that may be needed. Others in glowing 
language depict the superiority of the country, and one son in writing 
to his parents, says : — •" If you can come on the emigration, if you 
had fields of wheat, and the ears falling off it, don't delay one day if 
you get the chance. This is the best place from Heaven to have 
money and supply. If your name is in, you will write to us, and me 
and my sister will have house prepare 1 before you. It is not starving 
with the hunger you will be here ; the best meal we had in the old 
country, the worst here is better than it." 

In the case of the families selected for Canada, some will go direct 
to situations promised for them to Mr. Hodgkin, during his very useful 
visit last autumn. A few will proceed to Winnipeg where a com- 
mittee has been formed for their reception by Archbishop Tache, and 
all others are consigned to the care of the Emigration Agents of the 
Canadian Government at Toronto, to be forwarded as required. 

This is done with the full concurrence of the High Commissioner, 
Sir A. Gralt, and the assurance that the number on our lists can be 
absorbed in various portions of the Dominion. 

Of the 1,700 applicants in the Glifden Union, a number had to 
be rejected owing to considerations affecting the families, which made 
it appear undesirable for them to run the risks of emigration. 

Thus when families with four or five children under eight or ten 
years of age came before us, or others with a larger number under twelve 
or thirteen, it was not deemed prudent to allow them to proceed, 



10 Emigration Jroin Ireland. 

This was often a very painful duty, as the anxiety of the people to 
leave cannot be exaggerated. "Send us anywhere, yer honour, to get 
us out of our misery. What will we do tlicn in our poverty ?" And 
even many of those wlio were selected when told that a month or 
more must elapse before they could be sent out, said they had nothing 
to live upon, as all their resources had gone. The destitution of 
numbers of these people, living, as one man said, on '' two dry potatoes 
a day," is indeed fearful, and in the Clifden Union much aggravated 
by the nmiiber of evicted families — many of whom will now happily 
have the opportunity in anotlier land of gaining work and good wages 
where work is plentiful. Tliere is, except about Kylemore, no employ- 
ment to be had in the Clifden Union unless for a few who may be 
employed by the rather better off farmers to get in the crops at this 
moment. 

It will be evident from Avhat has Leon said that emigration is not 
the only remedial measure required. It is an unspeakable boon for 
those whose circumstances allow them to accept it. It is more than 
" a palliative " as ic is often called ; it is <7 remedy but not the only one 
needed, and I should not feel that I was discharging my duty without 
strongly saying that some moans other than the workliouse or out- 
door relief, ought, in my opinion, at once to be carefully considered for 
the relief of the small holders of land in these Western Unions. The 
question of how this is to be effected is far too serious to enter upon 
in this report in detail, but I cannot help again advocating as I have 
previously done in various ways, the importance from every point of 
view of piercing these districts, now forty, fifty, or sixty miles distant 
from the railwa}', with light narrow gauge railways or steam tramways. 
The immediate employment of hundreds of idle men and the sub- 
sequent opcnicg out of these remote districts could not fail to be pro* 
ductive of benefit and materially assist, Avith any well devised 
continuous system of free or partially free emigration, in relieving the 
most pressing w^ants of the West of Ireland. 

JAMES II. TUKE. 



Mr. Tuke's Fund. li 

MR. TUKE'S REPORT. 

No. 2. 

CLIFDEN UxNION. 

Jnli/y 1883. 

The mlnule reports of the condition of this Union given to the 
Committee last year when our Emigration work was commenced, 
render it unnecessarj to enter upon this point again, and it will only 
be needful to repeat that the Clifden Union contained a population of 
25,000 persons, spread over a very wide area, living on 4,000 holdings, 
of which 3,200 were rated under £4 p er annum, whilst the average 
of arable laud did not exceed 2-^- or 3 acres per family.' It will also 
be remembered that last year 1,200 persons were assisted to emigrate 
by the Committee from this Union (see Eeport 1882). 

The general success of last year's emigrants doubtless stimu- 
lated the desire to emigrate on the part of those at home who 
had received letters from their friends : and from first to last ap- 
plications representing a total of more than 2,000 persons were 
received. Of these the number selected and who have been assisted 
to emigrate amounts to 241 families, 300 single persons, or parts 
of families, together 1,589 persons. Of these 980 went to the United 
States, and 609 to Canada. 

The all important duty of selecting from the lists, and inspecting 
the applicants, commenced on the iSth of February, and owing to 
numerous changes and fresh applications continued at intervals 
during the whole period of the shipments. 

The first party of emigrants, 130 in number, left Galway on the 
23rd of March, and was followed by batches each week until the 23rd 
of June — in all eighteen shipments were made. The annexed list* of 
destinations, seventy-four in number, will be interesting as showing 
the very great variety of places in the United States to which the[emi- 
grants were sent, usually owing to the letters of invitation received 
from their friends. Those who went to Canada were provided with 
employment, chiefly in Ontario, by the Government agents. 
Some families also proceeded to Winnipeg. In connection with this 

* See Appendix, 



12 Emigmtion from Iveland. 

point it is satisfactory to know that tho success of a number of emi- 
grants who went to Canada in 1882, induced a considerable number 
to apply this year to be sent to that colony. Last year no one ai^lxcd 
to be sent to Canada, though willing to go there rather than remain 
behind in their poverty. In addition to tho satisfaction of hearing 
in many quarters of the undoubted well-doing of a number of emi- 
grants who had left in 1882, the indirect benefit was also apparent in 
lessening tho number of those who were competing for the very 
limited employment offered even in the spring, and also in the 
tendency to a consolidation of holdings.* But it was deeply 
painful to witness the disappointment of numbers of those 
families who were deemed too weak to leave, and who had no 
satisfactory letters from their friends. To many of these the only 
ray of hope seemed to be that there was a probability of the assistance 
being offered them another year. 

No words can too strongly depict the deep-seated poverty and 
privation endured by a number of families in certain portions of this 
Union, which a residence of more than three months within its com- 
pass brought to our knowledge. Not only were a number of these 
people unable to procure seed potatoes to crop their small holdings 
but were even dependent on private funds for the mouthful of meal on 
which they subsisted. There is indeed a total cessation of paid labour 
throughout the Union, although Is. to Is. 6d. per day would be 
willingly accepted and the bulk of the male population is without 
employment. Owing to various causes very few migratory labourers 
proceed from this Union to England, and those who might be 
inclined to go are without the funds needed to undertake the journey 
this year. 

The amount of detail in connection with the Emigration work can 
hardly be estimated, and caused a strain and perpetual tension of 
mind and body only made possible by the sense of the benefit which 
was conferred on these poor people, and which they so evidently felt 
and constantly acknowledged. I was assisted for many weeks by 
Mr. H. Hodgkin, whose devotion to the work was only equalled by 
the ability which he brought to bear upon it. During the latter 
portion of the time I had also the assistance of Mr. H. Higgins. 
The impossibility of procuring suitable clothing for the emi- 
grants in the district necessitated the arrangement of clothing 
depots. At each local centre of the work, Letterfrack, Clifden, 

* Sue Appendix n? to this year's results. 



Mi\ Take's Fanct. 13 

Carna, and Galway, a clothing store was established from which the 
emigrant was furnished with a suitable outfit — clothing, rugs, &c. 
The clothing was very satisfactorily supplied at moderate prices by 
Messrs. Pirn, of Dublin, and, to the remarkable success which has 
attended this portion of the work we are chiefly indebted to the un- 
tiring energy and capacity of Mr. C. T. Kelly, who worked night and 
day in carrying out this onerous task. 

For one party of the emigrants, who were proceeding to Min- 
nesota and Winnipeg, we were fortunate enough to secure the 
services of the Eev. M. Mahoney, CO., of Preston, to accompany 
them on their long journey. Arrangements were also made to retain 
his services for a time in Minnesota, for the purpose of receiving and 
caring for other parties of our people. He has rendered most valuable 
service to the Committee, not only in the oversight and placing of 
this year's emigrants, but also in supplying much information and 
opening the way for the reception of a large number of families if 
the work is continued another year. I may also add, as showing the 
demand for emigrants of the class lately sent there. Father Mahoney 
has recently forwarded applications for more than 30 additional 
families for Minnesota. This is the more gratifying as the feeling 
at St. Paul on his arrival was strongly set against tlie assisted emi- 
gration, the cry which then was (as Father Mahoney says) , *' send us 
no more Connemaras," having been exchanged for one of approval 
and keen satisfaction with the families assisted by the Committee. 
The following extract from a recent letter shows the high wages at 
once obtainable by both men and women. 

It is dated St. Paul, June 14th. *' As to employment," Father 
Mahoney writes, " the males all had it, or would have it, within a 
day or two, — indeed, it was said a man could hardly miss work 
unless he expressly tried to shirk it. The worst pay, 1.25dols. 
1.50dols. was common, and on the railways 1.75dDls. and 2dols. per 
day was obtained. The females, whether married or single, were, 
if possible, better off than the men — they were wanted everywhere 
for work the most ignorant could easily and satisfactorily do ; they 
get regular pay of not less than Idol, a day. For girls even as 
young as thirteen an incredibly brisk demand (existed), and no 
less was thought of than 5dols. a week with board. It astonished 
me to see how even slow dull girls were hired for lOdols. a month 
and board." 

The demand for the class of emigrants selected this year was not 



14 Emigration from Ireland. 

confined to Minnesota ; in other parts of the Union the applications 
for families have been more numerous than we could satisfy. It 
8v?ems especially important to note this circumstance after the very loud 
opposition which has been raised against State-aided Emigration by 
certain parties in America. It is due to the Committee to state that 
notwithstanding tlie rigorous examination of emigrants on landing 
none of our emigrants have boon found unable to support themselves, 
or in consequence returned. 

In conclusion, I venture to add that it would be regarded by 
numbers of families who are now looking forward to a continuation of 
the work of the Committee in Ireland as a mo^t serious calainitf/iHrom 
any cause the plan of assisted emigration was not continued. To many 
it has seemed as the only possible escape from the galling bondage of 
poverty, and a very serious responsibility must rest at the door of 
those who misrepresent the feeling and desires of the people, and speak 
of the free emigration as a cruel and enforced expatriation. Already 
during the past few weeks numerous letters have come from those 
whom we have had the happiness to assist, speaking in the most grate- 
ful terms of the kindness thafc has been done them and of the sense 
of emancipation from the grinding despair in which they had been 
living ; telling also of tlie good land of plenty to which they had 
come as " one flowing with milk and honey." To those who have so 
generously and freely enabled me to carry out a small portion of this 
^vork I desire to hand on the grateful thanks and prayers of these 
poor people, 

JAMES H. TUKE. 



PS. — The following extract from a letter just received from 
Father Mahoney dated St. Paul, July 1st, is highly satisfactory :— 

" I may mention these fact* : 1st, that hibour is in the briskest demand in St. 
Paul, and increasingly so. The demand has been for some weeks, and is now 
quite ahead of the supply. New railroads and quite extensive operations in 
street improvement are two great causes. 2nd, Father Nealis, the priest, in 
whose district very many of the West of Ireland ' greenhorns ' live, told me 
yesterday that all along this spring and summer he has met no case of begging 
or destitution. Bishop Ireland, too, frequently referred to how wonderfully he 
has all along been spared any appeal, and even any unfavourable account or 
mention of this year's emigrants ; so he infers quite jubilantly, and has asked 
me expressly to report to Mr. Tuke, that ' all the emigrants of this year are 
doing all right and tirst rate. ' I have noticed that in the case of the late batches 
the 5M3ungsters of former arrivals, having got meantime masters of the geography 
of the situation, were readily found to hand to give information and guidance, 
and put the greenhorns at home. 



il/r, TtiMs Fund, 



51 



OLIFDEN UNION --J"^^^^^, 1883, 



TXcmlU of Emigration as regards 43 Holdings in one Electoral JDi 



vision, 



HEAD TENANTS. 

I. — P. F., Land taken by brother, wlio has now two holdings. 

2. — M. I., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 

3. — M. K., Land taken by brother, who has now two holdings. 

4.— Gr. C, Land taken by adjoining tenant, who has two holdings. 

5. — A. M., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 

6. — B. J., Land taken by brother, who before was the under- 
tenant. 

7. — 8. M., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 

8.— M. H., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 

9. — T. C, Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
10. — J. C, Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
11. — M. J., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 

12. — N. P., Land taken by brother, formerly only a conacre tenant. 
13. — M. W., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
14. — J. M., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
15. — M. D., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
16. — J. IL, Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
17. — J. C, Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
18. — E. M. P., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 
19. — F. W., Land taken by adjoining tenant. 



20. — II. M., Land unoccupied. 

21.— 0. C, „ 

22.— a c, „ 

23.— T. R, „ 

24.-P. C, „ 

25.— J. W., „ 

26— W. C, „ 

27.-M. F., „ 



UNDEE TENANTS. 



28. — M. D., Land left to licad tenant. 

29.— A. 0., 

30 .— T. S., 

3L— P. K., 

32.— M. McD., 

33.— J. F., 

34.— P. C, Land 



aken by landlord. 



l(j Emigratmi from Ireland. 

CONACPvE TENANTS. 



3o.— J. K., To head tenant. 


30.— W. D., „ 




37. J. D., 




38._r. II., 




39.-I. II., 




40.— aM.D., ,. 




41.— J. C, 




42.— A. II., „ 




43.- J. M. F., „ 





APPENDIX.— CLIFDEN UNION. 



Destinations of Emigrants for the United States. 

Ykrmoxt. — Colchester, Enoshurgh Falls, Essex Junction, St. 
Albans, South Barnard, Woodstock. 

Maine. — Portland. 

New Hampshire. — Manchester. 

Ehode Island. — Pawtucket, Providence, Warren. 

CoNNECTicrx. — Birmingham, Central Village, North Grosvenordale, 
Windsorville. 

Massachusetts. — Boston, Cambridge, Port, Chelsea, Clinton Lynn, 
Millbury, Pitsfield, Worcester. 

New York. — Brooklyu, Chittenanga, Fort Hamilton, Johnstown, 
Kingston, Ulster Co., New York City, Syracuse, Troy. 

New Jersey. — Gloucester City, Trenton, Woodbury. 

Pennsylvania. — Alleghany, Chester, Connelsville, Frankstown) 
Hopewell, Johnstown, Mansfield, Minooka, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, 
Scranton, Walkerspoint, Whiteash, Wilkesbarre. 

Maryland. — Baltimore. 

Ohio. — Cincinnati, Lawrence Co., Newburgh, Stenbensville, 
Titusville, Webster Co. 

Kentucky. — Louisville, Newport. 

Virginia. — Brook Co., Kingsville, Norfolk, Handolph, Wheeling. 

Indiana. — Eichmond. 

Delaware. — Wilmington. 

Tennessee. — Nashville. 

Wisconsin. — Broadford, Elroy, Stalwart, Whitewater. 

Illinois. — Eock Island, Chicago. 

Iowa.— Independence. 

Minnesota.— Graceville, Minneapolis, Osakis, St. Joseph's, St. Paul. 



Mr. Tuhe's Fund, 17 



MR. SYDNEY BUXTON'S REPORT. 



15, Eaton Place, S.W. 

March 10//;, 1883. 

It becomes my duty, as Hon. Sec, and as having during the past 
three weeks been engaged in assisting to select emigrants, to submit 
to the Committee a report on the progress of the work. 

The Committee were originally asked to undertake the charge 
of districts containing a population of about 36,000 people ; subse- 
quently they accepted the further responsibility of additional districts; 
and they have now under their care, for emigration purposes, some 
46,000 persons, in the Unions of Belmullet and Newport, Co. Mayo, 
and in Clifden and Oughterard, Co. Galway. 

During the autumn recess it was necessary to make arrangements 
for the selection of the emigrants, preparations for their shipment, the 
obtaining of funds, and for other matters, involving a large amount 
of correspondence and organisation. 

It is not necessary to enter at any length into the details of this 
work. With the assent of the Irish Local Grovernment Board, we 
arranged that the relieving officers in the different districts should 
post our placards inviting those who desired to emigrate to give in 
their names, and should keep the lists for us. 

These lists were opened by the second week in January : and 
when closed at the end of the month contained 6,500 names ; a 
number sin6e increased by personal applications to ourselves to 
considerably over 7,000. 

It had not been Mr. Tuke's intention to go over to Ireland until 
somewhat later in the year, when the selection and shipment might 
have been consecutive. But as it soon appeared that, in spite of 
manifold notices and warnings, most of those on the lists would not 
sow their land until they knew definitely whether they were selected 



18 Emigration from Ireland, 

or rejected, we determined to proceed to the selection at the earliest 
possible moment ; and were consequently unable to wait for the 
meeting of the Committee. 

On the nth of February, theroforo, Mi\ Tuko and myself 
crossed to Dublin, saw the Lord Lieutenant and the officials 
interested, receiving instructions and advice from them ; and went on 
to Westport on the lOth. Joined there by Major GaskoU, we spent 
two days in discussing the best mode of procedure, in laying down 
principles and settling details, in going through lists, and making 
the acquaintance of those who were to assist us in the work. 

On the 16th we separated ; Mr. Tuke going to Clifden, Major 
Gaskell to Oughterard, and mj^self to Newport and BelmuUet, and 
for a fortnight we worked alone in our respective districts : what 
follows must therefore be of the nature of a personal narrative. 

The districts which I had undertaken comprised a scattered 
population of about 25,000 persons, of whom 16,000 were in BelmuUet, 
and 9,000 in Newport Union. The total number of original appli- 
cants, on the lists, amounted to about 2,400 in BelmuUet, and some 
750 in Newport, a number considerably enlarged by additional 
applicants, and one whieli might probably have been infinitely in- 
creased if I had felt myself at liberty to extend the lists. 

Two reasons existed why many of those who are now anxious to 
emigrate liad not in the first instance put down their names. To be- 
gin witli, due publicity had not been given to our placards ; many of 
the outlying viUages having, it appears, hardly received any notice at 
all. >Secondly, the people were at first suspicious, thinking tlie 
matter a Government scheme for exporting them ; and more 
especially (thanks, perliaps, to our placarded preference for Canada), 
believing Canadian emigration to bo a subtle device for keeping the 
emigrant under the British Crown, even when he had left Ireland. 

These suspicions wore, however, more or less dissipated when the 
people were personally interviewed ; and when they realised that the 
assisted emigration was a fact, and that it was not pressed upon 
them, they became anxiously eager to avail themselves of the 
opportunity. AVhilo, as regards Canada, when the real reason for 
desiring to send them there was carefully put before them, tlieir 
prejudices against that country were somewhat weakened ; though in 
some instances their unreasoning dread could not be removed, and a 
few families declined to go to Canada, even wlien the workhouse or 
starvation seemed to be the only alternatives, 



Mr. Take's Fund. 19 

The rule enforced with reference to the States, was that only those 
would he sent who could prove that they had there a near relation 
ready and willing to receive the family. It is pleasant to be able to 
report that a very large number of tlie applicants had most satisfactory 
letters, the genuineness of which was unquestionable, from their 
friends and relations in the States, in many cases urging them to 
come out and join them. The "relation" beiug, as a rule, a brother, 
son, sister, or daughter who had been sent out a year or two before 
by the united efforts of the family. 

In those cases where the applicants had no relations or no near 
relations in the States — " cousins," though always apparently plentiful, 
I could not admit to be such — they were, if suitable, offered a 
free passage to Canada, and, as already stated, few declined the offer, 
most, in their then mood, being ready to go anywhere so they might 
leave Ireland. 

There were those again who had, or said they had, friends and 
relations in the States, from whom, however, they had not received 
letters, or letters not sufficiently recent or satisfactory, but who, if 
appealed to, would be certain to promise them a welcome. As we had 
beforehand given notice of the necessity of letters, many of these 
persons had already written, and the others were instructed to write 
at once. If the replies are satisfactory (the envelope will be required 
as a test of genuineness) they will be sent to their friends ; otherwise 
they will have to go to Canada, unless, indeed, the family is so 
"weak" as to be unsuitable, when they must perforce remain at home. 

This last class were entered on my lists as " doubtful," but I 
fully believe that the majority of them will receive satisfactory letters 
and be able to be sent. The first two classes, those going to Canada or 
to friends in the States, received vouchers promising assistance, which 
in most cases will mean clothes and money in pocket in addition to 
the free passage.* 

In some cases where from letters or other sources of information, 
it appeared certain that the friends in America would or could provide 
a small contribution towards the cost, I insisted on the paj^ment of 
sums varying from £1 to £10. The intention in demanding this 
money was that it should be sent over from America as an earnest of 
the welcome which would be given to the emigrant. As a rule, 
therefore, I not only did not require immediate payment, but even 

* The total numbers sent from Belmullet and Newport amounted to over 
2j500. See appendix to Report, 



20 Emi[/ration from Ireland, 

refused an occasional proffer of such, preferring, where possible, not to 
deprive the creditors of their dues, nor to reduce the family to the 
last farthing, and desiring tliat the money should really come from 
America. The total sum thus paid or promised, amounted to over 
£300. 

Looking at the awful destitution of the people, it went against 
the grain thus to extract money from them, but it was important 
not to check the flow of contributions from America, while any 
additional money received by the Fund would go to assist other 
emigrants. 

I made it my business to see the head of each family, and 
often in addition some or all of the members — occasionally in order 
to put ages to them, age being often an unknown quantity, or 
varying according to the supposed necessities of the case. Thus, 
with the information supplied by the relieving officers and from 
other sources, it was possible to form a more or less accurate idea of 
the means and position of each family. 

It seemed of great importance for those who remain behind— 
and they ought to be considered as much or more than those who 
go — that one should endeavour, as far as one could, to assist 
towards a consolidation of holdings, the great need in 
Connaught. 

In the case, therefore, of a land-holding applicant — the vast 
majority, for even those classed as "labourers," were almost all 
cottiers^I inquired what each man intended to do about his land, to 
point out the advantage of a consolidation of holdings, and to 
suggest that the liolding ought to be assigned to a neighbour- 
ing tenant, or some satisfactory arrangement made with the agent 
or landlord, and that it should in no case be handed over to ' a 
new tenant. Yery often the matter had been already compulsorily 
decided, the applicant being '' ejected " or under process. I fear 
that the majority of tenants will receive little or notliing for their 
*' rights"; the land is almost worthless, and anything they may 
receive will be swallowed up by arrears and debts. 

I made it also a rule, in cases of families, that the whole 
family should go, or none. An inclination was occasionally shown 
to leave one or two members of the family behind on the 
land — an old father or mother, a biotlier, or someone; an idea 
which had to be sternly resisted if any permanent good were 
to accrue to the country. This rule, stringently enforced, more 



Mr. Titkes Fund. 2 1 

than ouce resulted in the enrolment for emigration of a whole 
family, of whom originally only a few members had intended 
to go. 

How far the sequel will show a real consolidation of holdings 
it is impossible to say.* I learn, however, that a considerable number 
of the landholders whom we have decided to send have already come 
to terms with their landlords ; and one may hope (especially as rent 
is almost everywhere two or three years in arrear) that the rest will 
do likewise. 

Undoubtedly some of the land will go out of cultivation 
altogether — how it ever came into cultivation is a mystery ; and a 
great deal will remain uncultivated for this year, inasmuch as most of 
those who are emigrating will not sow their land, even when they 
have seed, and will not relinquish their holdings until too late for a 
sowing to be made. 

At present, at all events, a strong feeling against sub- 
division exists amongst the people ; and there is good ground for 
hope that most of the land now to be left vacant will be amalga- 
mated with neighbouring tenancies, and thus form holdings on which 
it will be possible for a family to maintain, even if they cannot 
enjoy, life. 

The difficulty of deciding on each individual case was consider- 
able. The question had always carefully to be considered whether 
the family were sufficiently strong to give good promise of success 
in the new country ; more espeoially if they were going to Canada. 
It would be useless, and worse than useless, to send away a long 
weak family, depending solely on the health and strength of one 
man. It was necessary, therefore, as a rule, to accept those families 
only in which the workers more than outnumbered the non-workers. 
Consequently, some families whose appeal for help was the most 
urgent and the most piteous had to be refused. 

What is to become of these people it is hard to say. The 
distress in parts of the West seemed bad enough when I was over 
there last autumn : it appears decidedly worse now. No seed to sow, 
no work to be done, no wages to be earned, no credit at the shops ; 
the outlook for these poor people is dark indeed. 

Though enforcing, pretty strictly, the rule of "family" 
emigration only, I did occasionally pass an individual, either to go 



^- See Captain Ruttledge-Fair's Report, which shows a very satisfactory sequel, 



22 timigratiou from Ireland, 

with and so to strengthen a " weak " family, or for some especial 
reason. If I had allowed individuals to go, we might have sent away 
half the *' bone and sinew " of the country side ; but though one is 
inclined to pity strong boys and girls, and to wish to send them to 
where they could obtain work and wages, this inclination has to be 
checked lest the power of taking and placing families should be 
adversely affected. 

I feel convinced that if real publicity were given to the 
movement in the poorer districts of BelmuUet and Newport, a 
large number of additional families — some thousands of persons pro- 
bably — would be found willing, nay, anxious to emigrate. This 
year there is a considerable prejudice against Canada ; another year, 
if those sent there do well, the case will be altered, and, as has been 
already experienced by the Committee in some of the- Clifden dis- 
tricts, that country will have become nearly as popular as the 
States. At present, not unnaturally — and irrespective of local influ- 
ences, of the suspicion of Government intrigue, of the legends 
current about the niggers and other monsters of the unknown land — 
the people, mostly having friends or relations in the States, prefer to 
go there rather than to Canada. 

The obstacles in the way of family emigration — and it is the 
only form of emigration which can really relieve and improve the 
congested districts — is in no way due to lack of applications but 
chiefly to the difficulty of finding suitable and sufficient housing and 
work on the other side of the water. 

And, of course, these difficulties are very much greater than any 
against which " individual " emigration has to contend. Doubtless 
any number of able-bodied individuals might be sent to the States or 
to Canada with a certainty of obtaining employment ; and having 
no encumbrances they could easily move about as suited them best. 
Family emigration is, however, quite a different matter. The 
liousing difficulty is a grave one ; tho non-workers must be fed and 
clothed, though they cannot earn ; and thus it becomes essential to 
an-ange definitely beforehand where the family shall go, and to 
whose care they shall be primarily assigned. It would be out of the 
question, even if the respective Grovernments would allow it, to land 
families friendless and destitute in the States or Canada, and leave 
them entirely to their own resources. 

Thus, perhaps, the greatest difficulty in emigration of the 
character undertaken by the Committee is on the other side of the 



Mr. Tiikes Fund. 23 

Atlautic; and it becomes evident that any wliolesale sjstem of 
family emigration is both unwise and unjustifiable — unless carried 
out under very exceptional circumstances, with the greatest caution, 
and with careful previous preparation. 

It is certain that family emigration cannot proceed from the West, 
nor indeed probably from any part of Ireland, without extraneous 
aid, for while an occasional passage can be sent home by those 
abroad to bring over one or two others of the family, enough money 
cannot be raised to transfer all the members, and thus, of each family 
and on each holding, some^ and more especially the weak and the 
feeble, will remain. 

State-aided emigration to be a success and to be of real 
benefit to these poverty-stricken districts, should be spread over 
several years, and be confined to " families," with due arrangements 
for consolidation of holdings; the Grovernment grant per head being 
meanwliile somewhat increased. Even if the grant were in some 
measure to stay the flow of American money into these districts — 
though I doubt if it would — the amount sent over is not laige, and 
in no way diminishes but rather increases the evils from which 
these districts are suffering. While on the one hand it takes away 
a few of the able-bodied (doubtless greatly to their Kenefit), on the 
otlier, by subsidising those who remain, it tends to keep families 
struggling on the land in a state bordering on destitution, and 
assists them to pay rent which could not be raised from the land 
itself. If, however, by degrees, a large number of entire families 
were removed, the over-crowding would be relieved and the holdings 
increased in size. 

The very difficult and arduous work of providing for the 
shipment of these large nrimbers of emigrants has still to be under- 
taken. The first shipment for the States will be from Galway on 
the 23rd inst., the next on the 30th from Blacksod Bay; the first 
for Canada, on the 20th April, from Blacksod Bay, and so on, in a 
continuous weekly stream, one week to Boston, the next to Quebec, 
with a fevv^ special steamers interspersed. 

As BelmuUet is some fifty English miles from the nearest 
railway or telegraph station, the labour of taking any very consider- 
able number of emigrants to the usual ports would have been immense, 
perhaps insuperable; but fortunately the difficulties of transport 
have been largely solved by the possibility of bringing the emigrant 



24 Emigration from Ireland. 

sliips into Blaoksod Bay, at ilic licad of wlilch BelmuUet lies. The 
Newport and Bolmullet people will, thorcfore, be sliipped from thence, 
and the embarkation Avill bo further facilitated "^K^y the assistance of 
a gunboat, which the Admiralty has ordered to co-operate with us. 

Captain Iviitilcdge-Fair, who has been actively assisting me in 
the work of selection, is now in full charge of the districts of Newport 
and BelmuUet. I hope to be able to rejoin him in Belmullet about 
the 23rd inst., to help with the first, and perliaps with the second, 
shipment. Tlie further shipments will be undertaken by him, 
who, ably assisted as he is by Mr. liichards, and by Mr. Nolan, 
E..0., has already proved to the Committee his efficiency. 

I cannot close without expressing my gratitude to the Committee 
for their invariable kindness and consideration to myself. Nor can I 
refrain from expressing my sense of my great good fortune in having 
had the privilege of work with and under Mr. Tuke. 

SYDNEY C. BUXTON. 



N.B.^ — The very Vcilitable report of Captain Riittlodge-Fair regarding tho 
}Jclmullet and Newport districts, makes it unnecessary for me to -write a 
second report, or to describe the sliipments from Bhicksod Bay, the first of which 
I was able personally to superintend. 

The only note I would add, is that we were able — in the Mayo districts — 
satisfactorily to "scatter" the emigrants, sending the American ones to as many 
as eighty different destinations in seventeen States ; and a very large number 
to the West. We were able also to send a considerable number to AVinnipeg. 

It is most sincerely to be hoped that the Government will be induced to con- 
tinue the work of emigration for several years to come, taking each spring, from 
the congested districts, as many poor families as desire to leave. 

That which has been done in the past will be nearly useless for good unless 
it be endorsed and rendered effective by a continuation of the same process in the 
near future. The tramway scheme will, probably, be most valuable, but should 
not be allowed to interfere with the due development of the very important 
work of State-aided '•' family " emigration. 

Sydney Buxton. 

Julv 17th, 1883. 



Mr. Takes Fund. 25 



MAJOR GASKELL'S REPORT. 



OUaHTEEMlD UNION. 



Qalway, Ju/f/ 16///, 1883. 

Dear Mr. Buxton, — The annexed tables show the work for 
which I am responsible to your Committee ; and I have little to add 
to them in explanation. I am sorry they do not show the number, 
value, and present occupation of the holdings vacated by the emigrant 
families ; but I have not yet received the Eelieving Officer's answers 
to my questions on these points. A large proportion. of the families, 
however, had no land ; and the holdings left by the others are very 
small, but they have, I believe, in every case passed either to the 
relatives or nearest neighbours of those who emigrated — without 
previous surrender to the landlord. 

I shall be happy to give any further information which the Com- 
mittee may desire. I have not much knowledge of the present con- 
dition of the emigrants, except of those who left Lettermore, of whom 
we have received satisfactory accounts ; they are all doing well. 

Yours truly, 

W. P. OASKELL. 
Sydney C. Buxton, Esq., M.P. 



23 



Em t(j ration from Ireland. 



KETUKN OF EMIGRANTS SELKCTKD V>Y MAJOR GASKELL. 
2'^r(L :Mcirch to 2'6rd June, 1883. 



No. of I 
rtpplica 

tions 
on R.O. 

lists. 



140 

80 
950 



Electoral Divisions. 



120 



Airau Iclanils 

Camus 

Crumpaun 

Garoinna 

Lettenuoie 

Turlough 

Galway Inion gentr- ) 
ally exclusive of - 
An an Islands ... ) 

Oughteiard do. do. 



Population, 

1881. 


Persons Emigrated. 


Total 

1 
Heads. 


PersoLS. 


Families. 


Families. 

10 


48 
30 
50 
10 
32 

5 


Consist- 
ing of 
Persons. 


Indivi- 
duals. 


31C3 
518 
2173 
2730 
1043 
1722 


570 

ro 

412 
470 

257 


IJ5 
44 

... 

205 
329 

48 
138 
29 


37 

i9 
19 

20 
9 

2 
145 


72 

40 
322 
224 
3:19 

57 
143 

31 i 






198 


1079 


1224 



Per 
Ctnt. of 
Popu- 
lation in 
1881. 



2-27 
8-33 
13 00 
8.8 
20- 
3-31 



■■■ The 950 appUcalions for this E. Division includei 217 belonging to I.ettermore E.D., but the 
population, and percentage emigrated, are correctly shown. 



SAILINGS. 



SHIP. 



DATE OF FOR FOR 

WAILING. BOSTON QUEBEC 

Phanician 23rd March ... 84 . . . 



Nestorian 31st ,, 

Indiana 31st „ 

Canadian 14th April 

British Prince 19th ,, 

Austrian 21st , , 

Scandinavian 21st ,, 

Phoenician 28th ,, 

Buenos Ayreaji 28th ,, 

Manitoban Gth May 

Pi-ussian 12th ,, 

Canadian 20th ,, 

Austrian 2()th ,, 

Pha-nician 2nd June 

Grecian 3rd 

Prussian IGth 

Manitoban Kith 

Waldensiau 23rd 

Lake Winnipcy 23rd 



78... 
Go .. 
57... 
134.. 
08... 

34... 
95... 



via Queenstown to Philadelphia, 
via Queenstown to Philadelphia. 

95 for the States (St. Paul, Minn.) 



8G7 357 Total 1224 



W. P. GAf^KELL. 



Mr, lake's Fund. 27 



CAPTAIN RUTTLEDGE-FAIR'S REPORT. 



BELMULLET AND NEWPOET UNIONS. 



Gentlemen, » 

Having completed the work allotted to me by Mr. 
Tuke's Committee, I have now the honour to lay before you the 
following report of the proceedings and arrangements, which were 
carried out under my supervision in Mr. Sydney Buxton's district. 

The Unions entrusted to me included all Belmullet, and 
certain portions of Newport, viz., the Electoral Divisions of Newport 
West, Corraun Achill, Achill, Slievemore, and Dooega containing 
together a population of 24,600. 

The district is a wild and extensive one, the distance by road 
from Belmullet to Dugort (Achill) being 51 miles ; the area a total 
of 249,400 acres, with neither railway nor telegraphic communication 
within 42 miles from Belmullet. 

I arrived at Achill on 2 1st February , and joined Mr. Buxton, 
who was there for the purpose of interviewing persons who intended 
to emigrate ; on the 22nd we drove to Belmullet, and spent a week 
in the various Electoral Divisions of that Union, selecting families 
who had complied with the regulations laid down by the Com- 
mittee. 

It may be well, before referring further to our course of 



28 



Ernhj ration from Ireland. 



tlio suLjoiiied statement of (lie 



procedure, to lay before you 
particulars of cacli slilpmcut. 

13ELMULLET AND NEWPORT UNIONS. 

Ileturn of SJdpmcnts from Blaclsod Bay. 



VESSEL. 


Date. 

1883. 


Families. 


Tcrsons. 


Destiuation, 


" Ncstoriaii." 


... March 30th 


... .50 .. 


. 302 . 


Boston. 


"Canadian.'' 


... April 13th 


... 47 .. 


. 304 . 


Boston. 


" Scanduiavian." 


,, 21st 


... 49 .. 


251) 


Quebec. 


" PluL-nician." 


„ 27th 


... 40 .. 


. 230 . 


Boston. 


"Manitoban." 


... May 4th 


... .34 .. 


. 247* . 


Quebec. 


" Prussian." 


,, 11th 


... 37 .. 


. 247 . 


Boston. 


" Canadian " 


„ 19th 


... 29 .. 


. 143 . 


Quebec. 


"Austrian." 


„ 25th 


... 43 . 


. 238 . 


Boston. 


"Grecian." 


Jure 2nd 


... 37 . 


. 184 . 


Quebec. 


" Buenos Ayrian." 


„ 9th 


... 23 . 


83^ . 


Quebec. 


" Waklensian," 


„ 22nd 


... 49 .. 


. 198 . 


Boston. 






438 


2435 




Via Queenstown 


..• 


1 .. 


9 . 


Halifax. 


,, Liverpool 




4 .. 


29 . 


. New York 


, , London 


... 


... 10 


41 . 


Australia. 



453 2514 

It will tlius Lo seen from the foregoing, that of the 2,514 
emigrants, 888 went to Canada, l,o85 to the United States, and the 
remaining 41 to Australia. 

It is, I feel sure, a fact much to be regretted, that the short time 
at our disposal prevented our visiting more families in their homes, 
as in many outljing districts persons would be found, by whom 
emigration would have been regarded as an inestimable boon, who 
had never been apprised of the project till it was too late to avail 
themselves of it. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in selecting the families 
for each shipment. 

It was necessary to allow as far as possible the poorest to 
go first, for such was the poverty of the district at the time our 
labours commenced, that if we had not given early assistance 
many would have been obliged to enter the workhouse. 

It was also thought desirable to send only a limited number 
of families by any one steamer to tlie same destination, lest 
employment for all miglit not bo immediately forthcoming. 

It was, moreover, considered expedient to take one or two families 
for each shipment from each Electoral Division, in order to counteract 
as far as possible the opposition raised by those whose interest it was 
to keep the people in the country ; and also in consequence of the 

(*) Thirty-six persons by "Manitoban," and eleven pcrson^^ by '' Buenos 
Ayrian," both Canadian ships, went to Ohio, U.S. 



Mr. Tukes Fund. 29 

fact thcat much distrust and impatience with the movement was 
evinced by the people in remote districts, on account of the delays 
which unfortunately were unavoidable. 

A fortnight previous to the arrival of each steamer the families 
were carefully selected ; their names wore then sent to the relieving 
ofRcers, whose duty it was to warn those so selected of the place and 
date of embarkation, and also of the day on which they were to 
receive the clothing v/ith which the Committee had promised to 
supply them. 

It was necessary in most cases, to bring the families coming 
from a distance by cart to Belnmllet, where food and lodgings were 
provided. 

The embarkations took place from the slioros of EUy Bay — an 
inlet of Blaoksod Bay — at which place the " Allan " Line had 
arranged for their steamers to call weeklj^, en route to Gal way. The 
embarkation of the emigrants was naturally a cause for much anxiety, 
inasmuch as, although Blacksod Bay affords perhaps one of the finest 
anchorages in the West of Ireland — the Channel Squadron having 
lain there some few years since — still the shores of EUy Bay cannot 
be approached even at half-tide; added to which there is no pier, or 
in fact any accommodation for embarking the people. After due con- 
sultation with Staff- Captain Sutton, of H.M.S. "Seahorse," and Lieut. 
Beddoes, commanding the Coast-Guard, it was found that there was 
no alternative, except to arrange that the emigrants should be ready to 
embark on each occasion at high-water : the boats of the '' Seahorse " 
and Coast-Guard taking them from the shore to the gunboat which 
then ran alongside the *' Allan " steamer. 

Having- on many previous occasions witnessed the departure of 
emigrants, and the painful scenes with relatives left behind, I 
apprehended our operations would be considerably retarded, not only 
in getting the people to the beach in time for the tide, but also in 
keeping the boats clear of the many friends, who attended to bid them 
farewell ; but in both cases I was agreeably surprised to find that the 
emigrants, in their eagerness to leave, thought little of being at the 
beach at 6 a.m., and the usual impressive leave-taking was com- 
paratively nil. 

On the 27th April, the embarkation of 232 emigrants was 
witnessed by His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant, who travelled 
from Dublin on the previous day, in order to be present at the 
departure of the people, and personally to inspect the arrange- 



30 Emigration from Ireland. 

ments made for tlieir comfurt and couvenience. The moriiing of 
liis visit was uiifoidiiiately a most iinpropitious one; lieav}' drizzling 
rain, accompaniod b}' a cold wind and fog, lent a general appearance 
of wreteliedness and discomfort to the wliole proceedings, a state of 
affairs whieli was liappil y not noticeable on any of the previous or 
subsequent occasions. 

His Excellency was present during the whole shipment, and 
visited the "Allan" steamer, " Phoonician.' ' lie was pleased to 
express his high approval, at all the arrangements made for the em- 
barkation and comfort of the emigrants. II is Excellency's visit to the 
district had a most reassuring effect, the satisfactory and encouraging 
character of which, it would be impossible too strongly to represent. 

"With reference to the question of embarkation, I feel I should 
fail in my duty if I did not state that much of the success of this 
part of the undertaking was due to the assistance rendered us by 
Staff-Captain 8utton and Lieut. Beddoes, R.N. 

Staff-Captain Sutton had a most difficult duty to perform,not only 
in Elly Bay, but in the navigation of his vessel to the Narrows of 
Acliill, where the tide runs with such tremendous force, that the 
greatest skill was necessary, not only in handling the vessel, but also 
in getting the people on board, and with such judgment was 
this difficulty overcome, that in the emb?,rkation of 2,436 people, not 
a single mishap occurred. 

To Lieut. Beddoes, commanding officer of Coast-Guard, 
especial thanks are also due, and I have confidence in stating, it was 
greatly owing to his valuable assistance, that our contingents were 
so successfully and speedily embarked, and at once made comfortable 
on board the steamers. 

It may be somewhat interesting to follow the fortunes of some 
of these emigrants and see by their own handwriting how they fared 
on reaching their destinations ; with this object in view, I beg to 
quote extracts from letters received from various localities — 

From Patrick Barrett (late of Elly, B'atowu South), Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

To William Gilbert, Belmullet. 

I rent a liouse in the town for .C2a montli, Pat and Michael are working 

together under the same man, they are getting seven shillings a day. I am 

working myself about three miles from the town Catherine would get 15 

dollars a month but I could not spare lier. Anastatia is getting 10 dollars a 
month. Bridget is getting kIx dollars a month minding two small children. 
They see me every evening. I took good care of Bridget M'Grath and got her 
15 dollars a month and got her to service. She says she will soon remember you. 
I had a letter from William McGorman, and we are very glad to hear he is com- 
ing here Provision is not to say too dear here, 14 stone of flour is only £1, 



Mr, Tithes Fund 31 

Beef, 7d. a pound ; butter, 35 cents. ; eggs, 25 per doz. ; but clothes are very 

dear I hope I will see you in Ireland yet, or in Winnipeg. The next letter I 

send will not bo empty. If you were here you would make 4 dollars a day on 
wild duck All that sailed on 5th May arrived hero. 



From Simeon McNeila, (late of Tallagh), Lansing, Mohair Co., Minnes'jta. 

To John Nolan, Belmullet. 

So now I am at liberty to let you know all I possibly can. This is a 

country place and a great place for farmers. The farmers gives (sic) from £4 to 
£5 per month together with board and lodgings, those that are working on the 
railroad are getting Gs. 3d. per day. I mean working on the repairs, there is 
not any now roads started as yet about tliis place till tlie 1st of June, we had 
engineers out here last week, and the (sic) blocked out 100 miles of a new road, 
when that starts the wages will be from 8s. to 10s. per day. Young men would 
do well in this country, but weak families can't do so well. • But it is far better 
for them to come to this country weak or strong, or (sic) to try to live in misery 

as long as the (sic) live I have got a house cheap and a good plot of land. 

Pat Cawley and myself is renting one house, we live out in the country six miles 
from the nearest town, we live quite (sic) content and very happy that we came 
out. May the Lord bless those that relieved us in taking us out of poverty. We 
work together on the repairs of the railway and our wages per day is Gs. 3d. 

These letters are a fair sample of many others ; they reqah^e no 
comment, they speak for themselves ; and the Committee will learn 
with satisfaction how fully their own anticipations as to the pro- 
bability of the success of the people have been realized. 

With regard to the disposal of the holdings which have been 
vacated by tlie emigrants — a question of vital and paramount im- 
portance to those who remain, and one upon which the permanent 
success of the movement depends — great pains have been taken to 
ascertain what has become of the vacant holdings ; and 1 accordingly 
beg to refer the Committee to the returns appended to this report, 
which furDish definite particulars as to every holding from which 
families were assisted to emigrate from Belmullet and Newport 
districts. 

It will be observed that of 293 holdings vacated, 149 have passed 
to neighbouring Tenants; 106 have reverted to the Jjandlord, 
either b}^ eviction or by possession being voluntarily surrendered 
by the outgoing Tenant ; 18 holdings are " waste," the emigrants 
not having given up possession, and the Landlord not having yet 
taken the necessary legal steps to obtain the same ; while only 20 
have been purchased by new Tenants. 

It is probable that the majority of the " waste " holdings and 
those surrendered to or acquu^ed by the Landlord, will eventually 
be amalgamated with the holdings of adjoining well-to-do Tenants. 
It may thus be assumed that in 273 out of 293 cases, the 
emigration of " families " has led to a consolidation of the holdings. 
These figures conclusively prove the absolute falsity of the statements 



S2 Emigration from Ireland. 

wliicli Imve Leon "made to the effect that the Emigration Committees 
were " digging fresh graves for the people." 

Although the work of emigration lias been carried out as far as 
time would permit, it must be remembered, that there are very many 
other districts in tlie West of Ireland whicli liave as yet derived 
little benefit from State-assisted emigration. 

In conclusion I have to acknowledge the assistance I received from 
Mr. Eichaids, Mr. Oram, and a very efficient staff, while I am much 
indebted to Mr. H. A. Eobinson, L.G.I., for the kind advice and 
assistance he was always ready to afford me. 

I have the honour to be, 
Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

EOBEET EUTTLEDGE-FAIE. 

Eelmullet, Co. Mayo, 

27th June, 1883. 
To the Committee of Mr. Tuke's Fund. 



Mr, Tithe's Fund, 



33 



SUMMARY OF DISPOSAL OF HOLDINGS IN BELMULLKT 
AND NEWPORT DISTRICTS. 

S.T— same townlaud. a.t, — ad joiumg townland. 

BELMULLET UNION, 



BELMULLET E.D. 



NAME. 
George Coleman .. 

Edward Sherin 

Frank Fleming 

Pat Murphy 

Anthony Mills 

Bryant Shenlane ... 

Mick Caufield 

John Toole , 

Margaret Jennings 
James Meenaghan 

Pat Ginnelly 

Pat Monaghan 

Anthony Lavelle ... 
Anthony Lavelle ... 
Bridget Geraghty... 

Pat Gaynard 

Frank Cooney 

James Canl 

Simon McNeila ... 

Pat Cawley 

Anne Gallagher ... 
Patrick Moanghan 

Dommick Duggan 
Denis Ginnelly 



TO\VNLANJ\ 

Tallacyh 



Morahan 



DISPOSAL OF HOLniXC. 

Thomas Doherty, Landholder, 

Given to Landlord. 

Taken by Daughter. 

Evicted. 

Evicted. 

Evicted. 

Given to Landlord, 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to Landlcn-d. 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to I^andlord. 

To Ivichard Gaynard, Son. 

Given to Landlord. 

Ned OBoyle, New Tenant. 

(riven to Landlord. 

Given to Landlord. 

Waste Land. 

O'Donohoe, Landholder, S.T. 

Given to FatRer-in-Law. 

Pat Reilly, Landholder, S.T. 

Possession gfven to Landlord 



S.T. 



Frank Logher Aughaghassen Frank Dixon, Landholder, S.T. 



Hugh Monaghan 
John O'Malley .. 

Thos. Eeilly 

William Belle .. 

Thos. Davis 

PatCoyle 

Catherine Reilly 

Mick Lavelle 

James Coyle 

James Murphy .. 

Pat Barrett 

Peter Barrett.. .. 

Pat Loftus 

Mick Murray..... 



Waste Land. 

Given to Landlord. 

Given to Landlord. 

Peter Hart, Landholder, S.T. . 

William Murphy, New Tenant. 

Anthony Coyle, Landholder, S.T. 

Given to Landlord. 

Anthony Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 

Anthony Coyle, Landholder, S.T. 

David Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 

John Cormick, Landholder-, S.T. 

Pat Barrett, Landholder, S.T. 

Frank Dixon, Landholder, S.T. 

Frank Dixon, Landholder, S.T. 

John Tougher ,; Given to Landlord. 

James Dinnery Ballyglass Possession given to Landlord. 

MaryWelshe ,, Possession given to Landlord. 

Pat Dunleavy Knockshambo .Tohn Monaghan, Landholder, S.T. 

Pat Sullivan ,, John Sullivan, Landholder, S.T. 

William Gallagher Toorglass Anth. Murphy, Landholder, S.T. 



Anthony Duggan 
Michael Gaughan 
Henry Gaughan . 

Thos. Rowan 

John Tighe 

John McEwan .... 

Ned Carey 

.John Keane 

Peter Murphy .... 
John Roach 



,, Possession given to Landlord. 

,, John Gaughan, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Fred Carey, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Fred Sheridan, Landholder, S.T. 

,, (iiven to Landlord. 

,, Ned Gilbons, Landholder, S.T. 

Corclough Honor Tighe, Landholder, A.T. 

Pat Tighe, Landholder, A.T. 

,, .James Gibbons, New Tenant. 

,, .. Patrick Gibbons, New Tenant. 



Edward Buttler Belmullet Given to Landlord. 



James Buttler ,, 

Bi-idget Dixon ,, 

William Hopkins Atchecunaun . 



Michael Maiming, Landholder, S.T 
Mr. Potchford, Landholder, S.T, 

McNulty, I.,andlord, 



34 



Emigration from Ireland. 



NORTH AND SOUTH BINGHAMSTOWN E.D. 



nam::. 

Julia Maidea 

Mick Keanis 

.Tnhn Padden. 

Mary Keax'us 

Till nnas Barry 

Ih-idget Coloran 

Julia ( leraghty 

John T<)u;jher 

Mary Joyce ) 

Pat Gaii^^han j 

Michael Costello 

Mary Cafferty 

Martin ^[urray ... 

John Barrett .. 

Sarah Moua^hau 

Anthony Monaghau 

Edward (leraghty ... 

James Uilboy 

Charles Dunleavy 

John (lilboy 

Mary McHale 

Jack Keane 

JohnLtvelk' 

JohuPhilip.s 

Pat Barrett 

Pat Barrett, Auth 

P)avid iVFcUornian 

John Gallagher 

Edward Ganghaii 

Anthony Ginnelly 

Jame.s Wilson 

Anthony Kennedy 

Doninick Gallagher 

J( )hn Stephens 

James Barrett 

John Barrett 

John Meenaghan 

Alice Duggan 

James Manning .; 

Pat Ly nche 

Owen Laxclle 

Pat Lav.-llo 

Mick Gilb..y 

Anthony Gaughan 

Peter and Thn;nas Lavelh 

Pat Barrett 

Mick Barrett..... 

Pat Dixon 

Th( >mas Geraghty 

Anne (leraghty , 

( !liarl<'s Keane 

AV in if red Connor 

Tliomas Muri>hy 

MickO'Boyle 

Thomas Ruddy 

])avid Donohoe 

Mary Wills 

Charles Wills 

John Monaghau 



TOWN'r..VXi). 

Ardm )re 



Elly. B 



Cr( 



DIHPO.SAL OF HOLOINV,. 
P.)ssessiou given to Landlord. 

,, Possession given to Landlord. 

,, Pos.session given to Landlord. 

,, Poss(^ssion given to Landlord. 

Pat Lynch, Landholder, S.T. 

Wm. Alona^dian, Landholder, S.T. 

John O'Jioyle, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Possession given to Landlord. 

,, MirtinLoughen, Landholder, S.T. 

C.irao John Costello, Landholder S.T, 

,, Anth. lleraghty, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Waste Land. 

,, Waste Land. 

,, l^ossession given to Landlord. 

„ Owen McDonnell, Landholder, A.T 

Corroughhoy J. Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 

(xladdery Evicted. 

Emily Beg l^victed. 

,, Evicted. 

Tarm )n Possession given to Landlord. 

,, Possession given to Landlord. 

,, Possession given to Landlord. 

Possession given to Landlord. 

To Anthony Reilly, New Tenant. 
John Barrett, Landholder, S.T 
Anth. Geraghty, Landholder, A.T. 
Anthony Rowan, Landholder, S.T. 

, , Patrick Geraghty, Landholder, S.T 

,, Patrick Geraghtj',Landholder,S.T 

„ James Wilson, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Martin Kenned}^, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Tom Barret, Landholder, A.T. 

Liishkea lohn Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 

Martin Walshe, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Waste Land. 

,, Waste Land. 

Barnagh Possession given to Landlord. 

,, ^ . Possession given to Landlord. 

,, Possessicm given to Landlord. 

Michael Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 
J. (raughan. Landholder, S.T. 
Waste Land. 
Waste Land. 

S No. 11), J.Linskey,Landhldr.A.T. 
' ( No. 20, Possession given to Lndld. 

Possession given to Landlord. 
, Evicted. 
Evicted. 
Evi'jted. 

DrumT. William Lougher, Landholder.S.T. 

Monroughery Connor Keane, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Waste Land. 

Aughadoon Wm. LaveHV; Landholder, S.T. 

Clooueen Evicted 

,, Evicted. 

,, Evicted. 

Corelough Alick McDonnell Landh< )ld er, S. T 



]'\illmore 

Devlane 

Iiuiishjloria . 

Bitown North 



Mullaghcoe 



GLENCASTLE E.D. 
John McCabe Bunawillan Evicted. 



Ned Barrett 

John McAndrew . 

Richard Gaughan 

John Carey 

Laurenc-' D.^ocy . 
Peter Mo.Vndrew. 
dohn Mullowny . 



Glencastle 



Evicted. 

Given by Landlord to 

John Gaughan. Ne.v T.^aant. 
Evict(d. 
Evicted. 
^Va^te Land. 
Evicted. 
Evicted, 



Mr. Takes Fund. 



60 



GLENCASTLE Y..!). -Continual. 

NAJ[E. TOWNLAND. DISPOSAL OF HOLDING. 

Patrick Cafferky Muiiigmore Anth. Lenaghan, Landholder. 

Patrick J. Reilly ,, Ante. Lenaghan, Landholder. 

Domnick Barrett Alt Richard Barrett, S.T 

John (4aughan Shragh James Gaughan, Landholder, S.T 



Thomas Mclntyre 
Thomas Bourke .. 

Maims Cooney 

Mary Lally 

Pat Mills 

Peter G aughaii 



,, James Mullowny, New Tenant. 

,, Evicted. 

,, Evicted. 

,, Waste Land. 

,, Waste Land. 

,, Given by Landlord to Pat 

(iranghan. Landholder, IS.T. 

Michael MoG i-ath , , Henry Carty , Ne w Tenant. 

Anthony Barrett ,, Evict^^d. 

Anthony Bourke ,, ]<]victed. 

Pat Hart Bunahomia ICvicted. 

Bridget Barrett ,, ]*]victed. 

Mary Deane ,, Waste Land. 

Patrick M'Manmon ,, Evicted. 

Ned Gaughan Derrycorrib Mick Carolin, Landholder, S.T. 



Stephen Loughney 

Bridget Barrett . . . 

Pat ]3arrett 

Cath. Gaughan 



Landlord gave Land to 
David, Landholder, S.T. 

l-'victed. 

]'at Dixt^n, New Tenant. 



Anth. 



RATH-HILL, K\). 

Michael Padden Doolough Possession given to Landlord . 



Mary Divers 
Michael Crane . 
James Jordan . 
John Gauglian . 
Anne M'Tnty^e. 
Mary Jordan.... 
John Gaughan . 
John Cosgrave . 
Philip Heveran. 
Terry Sheerin . 
Myles Lally .... 
Cath. M'Guire . 



Possession given to Landlord. 

,, Henry Barrett, Landholder, S.T. 

, , Frank M'Namara, Landhldr. , S.T. 

, Peter O'Mally, Landholder, S.T. 

, , . . Possession given to Landlord. 

Peter O'Mally, Landholder, S.T. 

,, Martin Henaghan, Landhldr., S.T; 

,, Pat Cosgi'ave, Landholder, S.T. 

, , Possession given to Landlord. 

Roy ]*at Calvey , Landholder, A. T. 

,, Carter Pat Coyle', Landholder, S.T. 

Gefsala Evicted. 



Anthony Keane Dooyork 

Pat Mangan ,, 

Richard Barret ,, 

Michael Sweeny ,, 

Ellen Welshe ..■.: 



Michael Gruddy, Landholder, S.T. 

Evicted. 

Pat Coyle, Landholder, S.T. 

Pat Gallagher, Roy, A.T. 

Evicted. 



KNOCKNALOWER, E.D. 

Inver Given by Landlord to Anthony 

Monaghan, Landholder, S.T. 

,,/M . ,, Thos. M'Grath, Landholder, S.T. 

'Xji^.. ,, John Noon, Landholder, S.T. 

iii., ... „ Given by Landlord to Pat Cuffe, 

■"V Landholder, S.T. 

,, Anth. Noon, Landholder, S.T. 

" Gleiigad Anthony O'Donnell, Landholder, 

S.T. 

Bridget King Knocknalowev Ejected. 

Margaret Coyle Gortmellia In Landlord's possession. 

Mary Cafferty ,, ... Pat Caflferty, Landholder, S.T. 

Anth(my Curley ,, In Landlord's possession. 

Martin Boylan Burnaculla .. Martin Boylan, Landholder, A.T. 



Domnick ]M'Intyrc 

Ned Lavellc .... 
Thomas Noon . 
John Cuffe (A). 

John Cuffe 

Peter Murray . 



Margaret Davite 



Michael Mills ,, 

Ned Munnelly , Gortbrack 

Thomas M'Guire ,, 

Michael Monaghan , , 

Mick MDonough 

Michael McLane 

John McGarry 



Domnic Monaghan, Landholder, 

S.T. 
Mich.* M'Donnell, Landholder, A.T. 
Terence Cormick, Landholder, S.T. 
John Dooey, Landholder, S.T. 

,',' .'.' Ned M'Donough, Landholder, Inver. 

,j Anth. Noon, Landholder, Inver. 

Auff'hoose .' *. Terence Sheern, Landholder, S.T. 

...',.■.■ Anth. McGarry, Landholder, S.T. 



36 Emigi'cdion from iretand, 

MUINGS, E.D. 

VAMK. TOWNLAXn. HISPOSAL 01' KOLDIN'G. 

PatLavelle Muing.s ^fary l)<m-licrty, S..T 

Thomas Narey ,, Waste; Land. 

.T..lm O'Hara rama.slmnnagh Vntli. Filhiii, S T. 

Michael Caff erLy ,, In Landlord's Hands. 



MUINGNABOE, E.D. 

Martm Bolirko Rosport Evicted. 

James McDonnell ,, Evicted. 

Patrick ]?i()<,'-an. ,, Evicted. 

.Tohn (Jallaglier ,, Evicted. 

.T(»hn Hogan ,, Evicted. 

Owen Mullowney „ Evicted. 

Anne Corduff , Tohn M'CJrath, Landliokler, S.T. 

John Flannery Portulin Thos. M'Andrew,Landho]d.T,S.T. 

Peter M'Andrew „ Pat M'Donnelle, Landholder, S.T. 

Pat Burke Muingnalx. Pat Tiglie, Landliolder, S.T. 



KNOCKADAFF, E.D. 

Pat Oarvin Carrownaghongh . . . Pat Mullowyn, Landholder, S. T. 

Walter J. Bourke Curranboy Landlord. 

James Hogan ,, Domniick Deane,Xew Tenant. 

Denis Curley ,, Pat Geaghty, Landholder, S.T. 

Wilham Judge ... ,, Anth. Gannon, Landholder, S.T. 

IVIichael Cox , , Peter M'Andre w. Landholder, S. T. 

Anthony Monaghan Kilgalligan Pat Geraghty,Lndhldr. Curranboy. 



BAROOSKY, E.D. 

Pat :\rcDoimellu P.unalty John McDoimelle, Xew Tenant. 

JuhaCoyle Clenarevagh Surrendered to Landlord. 

Thomas Moran Shanaploye Michael Moran, Landholder, S.T. 

John Ruddy Lenerevagh Pat Dc.herty, Landholder, S.T. 

Honor Doherty Poolboy Thomas Doherty, Landholder,S-T, 



GLENAMOY, E.D. 

PatDeane Muingmaimc Held by Wife. 

PatDeane Glenamoy Evicted. 

Patrick Rowan Bally-Gally, South .. Terry Rorvan, Landholder, S.T. 



GOOLAMORE, E.D. 
James Mclntyre Tristia Thos. Demuglue, Ifiidhldr. S.T. 

BAXGOR, E.D. 
Patrick Sweeney Atliwalla Rev. J. Durcan, P.P., S.T. 



NEWPORT UNION. 

COXAUX, E.D. 

John Cathigan (ialnaliardia Possession given to Lmullovd. 

John Cooney Tonragee Michael Cooney, Landholder, S.T 

Hariy Joyce „ Mich. M'CJuintv, Landholder, S.T. 

Maud Joyce „ Pat Currigan, Landholder, S.T. 

Mary Gallagher Knocknamoona Possession given to Landhrd. 

Julia Cattaj, an ,, Frank Sweeny, Landholjp. S.T. 

J ohn Lavclle „ Rev. Mr. Fitzgerald, Landh( .Ider 

S.T. 



Mr. Titke's Fund, 



37 



NEWPORT UNION— CONAUN, ED.-ConUuucd. 



NAME. TOWNLAND. 

Pat Masterson Mewillaii , 

Maria Heaveran ,, 

MaryCattigau ,, 

James Lynchcron ,, 

Bridget Masterson ,, 

Pat Caine Polraiiny, S. . 

James Gallagher ,, 

Frank Sweeny ,, 



nSPOSAL OF HOLDING. 

Waste Land. 

Waste Land. 

Ov\en (rallagher, Landholder, S.T. 

Frank Sweeny, Landholder, S.T. 

Peter Gallagher, Landholder, S.T. 

Landholder, S.T. 
James Gallagher, Landholder, S.T. 
J. ]J)ixon, New Tenant. 



DOOEGA, E.D. 



Denis Gallagher Meelan .Tohn Cafferty, Landholder, S.T. 

Michael McGninty ,, Waste Land. 

Mick Kerrigan Draheens Michael Kerrigan,Landholder,S.T. 

Catherine McNeila Dereen Hugh Patten, New Tenant. 



Thomas Corrigan ,, 

Pat McLonghlin ,, 

Michael Masterson Dooega . . . 

Mary Kilbane , , 

Michael Lavelle ,, 

Ellen Cleary ,, 

Michael Doogan Gowlann 

Anthony Ginnelly 



Anias (Gallagher, New Tenant. 

Ned Sheridan, New Tenant. 

Evicted. 

Eryan Kilbane, New Tenant. 

Michael Lavelle, New Tenant. 

Andrew Mullry, Landholder, S.T. 

Michael Kilbane, New Tenant. 



Dooega John Doogan, New Tenant. 



ACHILL, E.D. 



Pat Gallagher Cashell 

Michael Cafferty ,, 

Mary Gallagher ,, 

Martin Campbell Saula 



Michael Gallagher, Lndhldr., S.T. 
John Cafferty, Landholder, S.T. 
Michael Galla-her, Lndhldr., S.T. 
Edward Gallagher, Lndhldr., S.T* 



SLIEVEMORE, E.D. 



Bridget Graven Keel , 

John Barrett... Dooagh... 

John Lavelle ,, 

Michael Grealis Doogort , 

Owen Grealis ,, 

John Mangan ,, 

Martin Gallagher Doonevcr , 

Anthony McGuinty ,, 

Owen Gallagher ,, 

Mick McGninty ,, 

Catherine Gallajifher 



Michael Ruddy, Landholder, S.T. 

Anthony Grady, Landholder, S.T. 

Patrick Lavelle, Landh(.lder, S.T. 

Thomas Staunt( )n, Landh( )ldcr, A. T. 

Possession given to Landlord. 

Possession given to Landlord. 

Martin O'Malley , Land holder, S.T. 

Possession given to Landlord. 

Pat Carton, Landholder, S.T. 

Michael Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 

John Gannon, Landholder, S.T. 

Bridget Mulloy ,, Waste Land. 

Nancy Lavelle Keel John Lavelle, Landholder, S.T. 

Bryan Navin Lmishbegle Michael Grealis, Landholder, S.T. 

Thomas Navin ,, Mary Navin, Landholder, S.T. 

Thomas Donnelly ,, A. O'Malley, Landholder, S.T. 

Owen Doran ,, M. Langham, Landholder, A. T. 

Mary Muri)hy Saula Owen Murphy, Landholder, S.T. 

Bryan McManmon Toney ton vally Possession given to Landlord . 



Hugh McLoughlin 

James Doogan 

Michael Eno^lish 

John Coolichan 

James Henne 

PatO'Boyle 

Grace McMamnon , . 

Honor Henne 

Brid get McDonough 



Dominick McLoughlin, Landholder, 

S.T. 
Possession given to Landlord. 
Possession given to Landlord. 
Possession given to Landlord. 
Possession given to Landlord. 
Anthony MclNIamnon, New Tenant 
Michael" McMamnon, New Tenant 
Sibby Henne, Landholder, S.T. 
Possession given to Landlord. 



E.D. 

Possession given to Landlord. 



NEWPORT WEST, 

Martin Kelly Rostruck 

John Kelly ,, I*ossession given to Landlords 

Mick Grehan Defrycooldrin Possession given to Landlord. 

Pat Kerrigan Corrowsallagh R. V. Stoney, Landholder, A.T. 

William Chambel-s ,, Bridget Noble, Landholder, S.T 

Mary Welsh ,> Pat Gallagher, Landholder, S.T 



38 Ennfjmtlon from Ireland. 

NEWPORT WEST, YA).-('iml[Hm'h 

NAMi:. TOWN LAN I). DISPOSAL OK HOLOINf;. 

Duininick Moran Knockmanu.s ^Michael Mdraii, L.-uidhdlder, S.T. 

■William riKiinluTs Kiiockbrc-a Th. mas O'lioylc, Landliuklcr. S.T 

Tlinnias McT.ouKhliu IJoskcen .Ti.liii Moran, 'Laii(lh(»l<ler, S.T. 

i\Iar<zai('t Malk'y Ncwficld I'at Kain, LandlioUkr, S.T. 

Thomas (havin Sandhill I'at McCanii, Landholder, S.T. 

Dan f.-nway M..l.ianny .lohn Moran, Landholder, S.T. 

.lohn Mulloy „ Xcal ( )"I)onnL-lI, Landhoklor, S.T. 

Thomas Mastrrson ,, Tossission ^'iven to Landloid. 

Mick Farrv Munvva|;h Michael (luman, landholder, S.T. 

I'atfJorman ,, Pat Carolan, I andholder, S.T. 

]'at Masterson ,, Michael Carolan, Landholder, S.T. 

Mick Mulloy ,, Possession given to Landlord. 

I'at ^Lllley Ilosgallivu Possession given to LandlonL 

Jolin (Jarvey ,, Possession given to Landlord. 

]N[ick Mulloy ,, Possession given to Landlord. 

Mick Kaine ,, Possession given .to Landlord. 



Printed by the ^^'\tioJ:al Eicts Agency, Limited, 13, Whitefiiars ^'tieet, L( ntIo:i, E.C, 



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